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About Traditional Art / Professional Member NimaMale/United States Group :iconprehistory-alive: Prehistory-Alive
Bringing prehistory back to life
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A few of my skeletals will be getting a substantial overhaul as I have come across piles of new data and material that demands a revision. Brachiosaurus… is already largely overhauled. Little did I know that the Smithsonian actually has multiple fragmentary specimens of Brachiosaurus that have never been put on display! Giraffatitan and Lusotitan are also on the list. You find new stuff in museum collections that fills in some gaps and basically your old stuff becomes outdated.

As Scott Hartman and a few others know personally, this is the real fun part of skeletals :XD:


Artist | Professional | Traditional Art
United States
Current Residence: A dinosaur museum/bone bed near you
deviantWEAR sizing preference: Somewhere between Otto Arco and Louis Cyr
Favourite style of art: that's rather self-evident...
Operating System: Anything but Vista!
Skin of choice: mammalian, watertight, preferably soft, hairless and well-insulated
Personal Quote: "It must be new or bust!"

All images are my own copyrights unless explicitly noted otherwise. If you are interested in commissioning work or using any of my images in a paper, book, presentation or website, drop me a line at



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TitanoRex Featured By Owner 17 hours ago
Hey just wondering whats your input on the whole Megaraptora being sunk into Tyrannosauroidea or at least Coelurosauria? (No idea where this leaves Neovenator but no one seems to be mentioning Neo.)
Paleo-reptiles Featured By Owner 5 days ago
Dear Nima, lately, I published several articles about marine reptile childbirth, relationship between Mesosaurus and  salt lake, and prehistoric giant amphibians in Iranian magazine with Persian language and beautiful illustrations of the best artists of the world(with their personal permission). Do you able to read Persian language articles. I like you read them. please send me a message to my Email, then I will send you pdf of my articles.

my Email:
Paleo-reptiles Featured By Owner 5 days ago
my Iranian friend, Nima
Iranian economical condition for job is very bad in these years. if I migrate to USA, Do any good  chance exist for an  Iran biologist like me (as a none-native man) in USA for finding a job in my field, in Museum, University,...?

bout exist of  "gastralia" and evolution and physiological role of it in evolution of aquatic reptiles, please answer to my questions according your wonderful knowledge about anatomy:

1- according to Sea dragons by Ellis, Giant Pliosaurs had  "gastralia" and Mosausrs did not have "gastralia". Why?

2- Did exist "gastralia" in pliosaurs give them any advantageous or disadvantageous in compare with Mosasaurs that do not have "gastralia"? How and why?

3-What were role "gastralia" in Giant Pliosaurs of late jurassic and early creatceous?

4-A Pliosaurs never come to land, therefore, why they have  "gastralia"?
5- Do exist "gastralia" in giant Pliosaurs show us they dive to deep parts off sea like Sperm whales?

6-Do lack of "gastralia" show a better adaption for aquatic environment?
DOTB18 Featured By Owner Jul 7, 2014
What are the chances that flat-headed pachycephalosaurs like Homalocephale and Dracorex are cases of sexual dimorphism instead of ontogenetic growth stages?
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
You mean that the flat-heads are possibly females of dome-heads like Tylocephale and Prenocephale?

This is an interesting idea, but doubtful. While there was likely a bit of dimorphism in many dinosaurs, I doubt it reached such extremes. In order for the sexual dimorphism hypothesis to really stand up, you need a few things to be in place.

1) location, time horizon, and stratigraphic level must match perfectly between "males" and "females".
2) there still need to be enough characters shared (especially in internal skull anatomy and spinal column) to synonymize them as the same species without resorting to extreme arm-waving Hornerian lumpery.
3) ideally a herd containing both males and females needs to be found. Some juveniles showing the roots of the dimorphic split won't hurt either. This last one is very hard to fulfill. But even the first requirement isn't so easy.

I suspect we're just dealing with different species here. And although they are all Late Cretaceous, I haven't seen any evidence that two or more flat-head and dome-head pachycephalosaurs share the exact same stratigraphy. Maybe there is proof but I haven't seen it.
PaleoJoe Featured By Owner Jun 21, 2014  Student Traditional Artist
Why do you restore your sauropods' hind legs as digitigrade and not plantigrade?
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
It's complicated, but ultimately in a nutshell I don't agree with plantigrade. The digitigrade/plantigrade debate isn't a new thing. It's been going on back and forth ever since the 1960s. I find the anatomical evidence for digitigrade more convincing. To get a plantigrade stance to function properly you would have to either reverse the rotation of the astragalus (as in prosauropods) or splay the hindlimbs out. Neither one seems very plausible in my view.
bLAZZE92 Featured By Owner Edited Jun 28, 2014
Then, what do you have to say about papers like this?

or this and this

Neither digitigrade nor plantigrade but semi(or sub)-plantigrade?
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jul 3, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
What I have to say is you're asking the wrong questions. :XD: Don't take it personally, these are clearly not the same animals I'm illustrating, not even close. You're showing very primitive sauropodomorphs which have a completely different foot structure, from very early Jurassic epochs which I haven't even touched. As I mentioned before, you can get a semi-plantigrade looking foot if you have the astragalus in a prosauropod-like position. However, my sauropods are all neosauropods (mostly brachiosaurs and titanosaurs) which have a very different foot structure. Every articulated neosauropod food thus far found shows the astragalus has rotated to the reverse of the prosauropod position, resulting in a digitigrade foot. This transition likely happened in the early Jurassic.

So your links actually prove my point, not refute it.

The first paper is about very basal sauropods (if even that) from the earliest Jurassic. Yes, they may well be semi-plantigrade. But those are super-primitive Saturnalia-like things with long, free toes, a far cry from what you see in eusauropoda, let alone neosauropoda, let alone brachiosauridae and titanosauriformes (which are my main focus).

The second link goes to a google book where the page is omitted, so no good.

The third link points to a book page that shows basal "sauropodomorph" tracks that don't even look like true sauropods. Probably from Riojasauridae or another "prosauropod" lineage. So just like the first paper, it's irrelevant to the animals I'm illustrating (which were far more advanced and usually much bigger, with a lot more weight to support).

Cite a paper that's relevant to brachiosaurs (or any neosauropods for that matter) and then things may get interesting.
(1 Reply)
PaleoJoe Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2014  Student Traditional Artist
That makes senses,thank you very much.😀
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