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Lusotitan atalaiensis hi-fi skeletal by Paleo-King Lusotitan atalaiensis hi-fi skeletal by Paleo-King
Lusotitan atalaiensis

Etymology: Lusitanian (Portuguese) lizard from Atalaia
Family: Brachiosauridae (intermediate position)
Time: Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian-Tithonian epochs, ~150 mya
Location: Lourinhã, Portugal

*Now HEAVILY revised and re-scaled based on Mannion, et. al. 2013*

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Lusotitan atalaiensis, the Portuguese brachiosaur, formerly classified as a species of Brachiosaurus.

Actually there is at least one other Portuguese brachiosaur known www.flickr.com/photos/62923316… www.flickr.com/photos/62923316…, but it's a good deal smaller and known from a complete arm, whereas Lusotitan is known from no complete body segments.

Lusotitan is a large brachiosaur, though this most recent revision shows it's not the supergiant once thought - at least not the sole individual known, which was not full grown. It's slightly smaller than the teenage Giraffatitan HMN SII.  Its tibiae are more robust and expanded at both ends than those of Giraffatitan. However, its tail is significantly larger, which may reflect a different defense strategy. Although the humeri are incomplete, their proximal portions indicate bones of huge size, even by typical brachiosaur proportions. As the biggest animal in the Lourinhã formation, Lusotitan would have truly been an imposing presence on the the floodplains of Late Jurassic Europe. Maximum size, as with Giraffatitan, is unknown, but may have been around 15-20% bigger than the type specimen.

This is the first ever detailed skeletal of Lusotitan compiled from data based on the actual fossil remains. Speculative portions are restored after Giraffatitan, with some modifications based on various European brachiosaur taxa (head, neck, dorsals, etc.). Some of these taxa are highly confused, such as the case of Ornithopsis eucamerotus/Eucamerotus foxi/Bothriospondylus magnus. Generally these European forms have dorsal neural spines more vertical than in Giraffatitan and more slender than in Brachiosaurus, so it may be inferred that Lusotitan had a similar morphology.

REFERENCES:

A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série 2: 1-63

Antunes, Miguel; Mateus, Octavio (2003). "Dinosaurs of Portugal". Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (1): 77–95.

Mannion, P. D., Upchurch P., Barnes R. N., & Mateus O. (2013). "Osteology of the Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropod dinosaur Lusotitan atalaiensis (Macronaria) and the evolutionary history of basal titanosauriforms." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 1-109.
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I´ve decided to start making life restorations based on yours and Scott Hartman´s skeletals, here´s my Lusotitanbricksmashtv.deviantart.com/ar…
If possible, I would love some critique on it.
Thanks again!
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Mar 25, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Interesting... I didn't know Scott did a Lusotitan skeletal. Where is it?
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Edited Mar 25, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
No, I meant I´m doing life restorations based on skeletals by both you AND Scott Hartman :D (Big Grin) . Unless he´s got one coming up we don´t know about. Probably won´t matter anyway, since I find your neck posture for Brachiosaurs and Mamenchisaurs a lot more believable than his for a more habitual pose (S-curve vs 45-degrees).
Still though, whatcha think about it?
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Mar 28, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Interesting... although my Lusotitan skull is based on Europasaurus and Brachiosaurus, not Giraffatitan. I don't really see how any of it looks like Giraffatitan.
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Mar 29, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
My bad, I see now. I´ll correct that.
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:iconshadowoftheeast:
ShadowoftheEast Featured By Owner Feb 18, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Nice reflexion and input on it! I love your reconstructions.

Does that mean an adult Lusotitan could had reached 25 meters? If if it was around 15% than the holotype?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Feb 24, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Possibly. The holotype is not full grown and it's already huge.
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:iconshadowoftheeast:
ShadowoftheEast Featured By Owner Feb 24, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Seems like giant macronarians were widespread in the world. 
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:iconmegalotitan:
Megalotitan Featured By Owner Jan 9, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
What are your thoughts on this? :-? (Confused) 
docentes.fct.unl.pt/sites/defa…
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Very interesting. I have been working on ways to categorize titanosauriforms based on all parts of the skeleton, never knew about anyone doing it with sternal plates though. That's a lot of sternals! I will definitely read this paper several times.
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:iconmegalotitan:
Megalotitan Featured By Owner Jan 14, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Could it be referred to Lusotitan?
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:iconmegalotitan:
Megalotitan Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Would be Lusotitan phylogenetically closer to Giraffatitan or to Brachiosaurus?
Those neural spines look more similar to Giraffatitan, but you gave it a Brachiosaurus (like-) head.....
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Actually I gave it more of a Europasaurus-like head. It's not as long as a Brachiosaurus head.  I think Lusotitan is probably a little bit closer to Giraffatitan phylogenetically, but I suspect European brachiosaurs in general had a few different lineages which were independent of both Brachiosaurus' and Giraffatitan's subclades. Also Lusotitan appears to be more primitive than the brachiosaurs in England, so that's another reason I went with more of a Europasaurus-like head, as it's also a fairly basal brachiosaur.
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:iconevoblast99:
Evoblast99 Featured By Owner Jul 2, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
I think the other smaller portuguese brachiosaur is now called Zby atlanticus, and turned out to be a turiasaur: www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10…
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Actually it´s different, first, only the arm is known from the Lourinhá Brachiosaur, and two, you can tell it´s different because the scapula of Zby is incomplete, unlike the Lourinhá Brachiosaur´s. Unfortunately the LB remains undescribed.
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:iconevoblast99:
Evoblast99 Featured By Owner Mar 25, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh.. That's confusing.
Well, thanks for correcting me!
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Mar 25, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
No problem!
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jun 25, 2015  Hobbyist
It's weird that the body length is shorter.What is it's weight ?
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Sep 7, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
That's one compact body!
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Sep 7, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Yes, it's a lot more compact that I had expected. There's only one dorsal centrum known, but it's a very short one, and brachiosaurs generally don't show radical changes in dorsal centrum length the way titanosaurs sometimes do. The excellent scale photos in Manntion et. al. (2013) basically forced me to take a second look at Lusotitan and it turned out I'd gotten nearly everything wrong with the previous version of the skeletal. It's smaller, more compact, but with a bigger tail. The proportions now are all based on the paper (before this, there really were no good photos of the material available so the first version of the skeletal was very speculative anyway).
Reply
:icondinodrawer:
DiNoDrAwEr Featured By Owner Mar 20, 2014  Hobbyist Photographer
What is the estimated total length of an adult Lusotitan?
In your description you mentioned this to be the reconstruction of a subadult specimen... ;)
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Mar 30, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
That's just the thing, this IS the only specimen. I don't know how big an adult Lusotitan is. My best guess would be about 15% larger than this lectotype. But there's no reason to take that as an upper limit - not even a weak reason like we have with Giraffatitan HMN XV2, which may still not be fully grown, as there's no shoulder material for that specimen. Even astoundingly gigantic brachiosaurs like the type specimens of Fusuisaurus and "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi are still unlikely to be the biggest individuals of their species. "B."nougaredi is known from a rather slender and lightly built sacrum, this may be a subadult animal too, despite being 50-60% longer than Giraffatitan HMN SII (assuming similar proportions and the sacral proportions of SII scaled up from HMN Aa). So it was probably 120ft. long, and still rather slender for its size.

Imagine a 150-foot long brachiosaur, it's not all that crazy when you think about it. A giant titanosaur (or possibly a basal titanosauriform) femur has popped up in France, 2.2m long, and another one reported to be 2.6m. Perhaps there were giant brachiosaurs too, we just have yet to find them.
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:icondinodrawer:
DiNoDrAwEr Featured By Owner Mar 30, 2014  Hobbyist Photographer
That's really impressive!

But what if there is no fully grown individual, if they grew their whole life long?
Perhaps we will never know exactly... :(
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Mar 30, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
True, that's possible. It does appear from some species that growth slowed down after adulthood but continued at a slower rate. But by full grown I mean ontogenic maturity, which is when the suture in the scapulacoracoid is completely fused over. Sexual maturity probably takes place quite a bit earlier, especially in female sauropods. Some "teenage" saltasaurids that are far from maximum size show "egg laying bone" microstructure in their long bones.
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:iconthedinorocker:
thedinorocker Featured By Owner Feb 1, 2014
Love this Euopean Brachiosaur, compliment for you work, I m glad Someone restore accurately the "forgotten giants" !
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:iconcaprisaurus:
Caprisaurus Featured By Owner Oct 17, 2012
Are the darker parts supposed to be fossils not found yet or is that those parts are in the making?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Oct 17, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
The shaded bones are the parts that have not been found. So as you can see some of the existing fossils are actually broken parts, not the entire bone (like the scapula and the ilium).
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:iconalgoroth:
Algoroth Featured By Owner Jun 15, 2012  Professional General Artist
Excellent work!

Re: Sauropseidon...I keep getting this vision of a super long neck walking around on four tiny legs, for all the world like a giraffapuppy looking for its mama! :rofl:

I look forward to yer Sauropseidon skeletal!
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:iconemperordinobot:
EmperorDinobot Featured By Owner May 10, 2012
This animal is REALLY large.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 27, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Yeah, believe it or not, it may actually rival Sauroposeidon in size (which I'm working on, and shockingly Sauroposeidon appears not to be the record breaker once thought).
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:icontyrannosaurusprime:
TyrannosaurusPrime Featured By Owner May 29, 2012
So Sauroposeidon isn't the 60 foot tall brachiosaur we once thought?:confused::?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 30, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
It probably still is, it just may not be as LONG as once though depending on its proportions (which are still unknown). And it may not be a whole lot bigger volume-wise than an adult Brachiosaurus or Giraffatitan.

I'm still working out proportions on Sauroposeidon, hopefully I'll have a skeketal done soon.
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:icontyrannosaurusprime:
TyrannosaurusPrime Featured By Owner May 30, 2012
Ok.:) BTW how well did I do in here? [link] :confused:
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 31, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Not bad. This guy (as far as I can tell) seems to idolize Dal Sasso without knowing a whole heck of a lot about him. I don't even know Dal Sasso's work that well! He's not exactly well known on the same level as Galton, Kirkland, Holtz, Mannion, Bonaparte, Novas, Coria, Upchurch, Wilson, etc.... and definitely not on the level of Bakker or Horner.

And if we're talking about a private specimen that Horner has seen, it's not publishable in peer-reviewed science journals, and any talk of it is just hearsay. Horner tends to embellish a LOT with his conclusions (Sereno the same way), now if it was Wilson and Upchurch doing the figuring then I'd be more prepared to trust the estimates.
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:icontyrannosaurusprime:
TyrannosaurusPrime Featured By Owner May 31, 2012
How accurate are Wilson's and Upchurch's figures?:confused::?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jun 1, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
They have probably numbers-wise the best measurements in the field. This is in order to do the HUGE phylogenetic analyses they have been working on for years. Of course they do specialize in titanosaurs so it's unlikely they would work on Spinosaurus.
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(1 Reply)
:iconemperordinobot:
EmperorDinobot Featured By Owner May 28, 2012
It's still larger than Titanic giraffe. That's pretty fuckin' large.
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:iconsewong:
SEWong Featured By Owner May 8, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Interesting...
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:iconpilsator:
pilsator Featured By Owner May 6, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Very impressive.
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:iconvasix:
vasix Featured By Owner May 6, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It looks a bit like the neck's angled somewhat towards the back....
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 6, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Not quite. It's an s-curve, but the neck never retracts back behind its base.
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:iconvasix:
vasix Featured By Owner May 6, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Well, I just assumed at first, seeing as the skeletals of Brachiosaurus and Giraffatitan are the ones I'm most used to seeing.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 6, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Well I did the same thing with those necks.
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:iconvasix:
vasix Featured By Owner May 7, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Ah,I see
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:icontroyandfriends:
TroyandFriends Featured By Owner May 5, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I'm guessing about 50 (48) feet high?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 5, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Yes. A very tall animal. Assuming the one awful image of the cervicals I have seen is accurate. The neck proportions may have been longer or shorter than you see here, but overall the similarity of this animal to Giraffatitan is probably indicative of a similar-sized neck.
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:iconteratophoneus:
Teratophoneus Featured By Owner May 5, 2012
Interesting, the animal seems to be more compact than brachiosaurus and giraffatitan.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 5, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Its rear end definitely is. As for the rest of the animal, that's a bit harder to be sure of. Based on the size of the partial humeri, it looks less compact at the front. Probably more of a front-heavy animal than Giraffatitan, though there were some brachiosaurs that took this trend even further.
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:iconteratophoneus:
Teratophoneus Featured By Owner May 11, 2012
yes I meant the rear end :). Its neck looks quite "normal" for a brachiosaur but in relation to its body it almost looks like its body is very short and compact.
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