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The Brachiosaur Parade by Paleo-King The Brachiosaur Parade by Paleo-King
2009 Paleo-King

Featured on The Paleo King [link] and SV-POW [link] - it's the Big Bad Brachiosaur Parade!

The fourteen best-known brachiosaur genera as of mid-2009 (before Abydosaurus and Qiaowanlong were described - sheesh, I wish they'd been discovered and described a few months earlier!). All brachiosaurs drawn to scale with the largest known T. rex specimen (MOR 008, not Sue) and labeled for easy reference 8-)

Here's the lineup:

Volkheimeria
Lapparentosaurus
Daanosaurus
Bothriospondylus
Lusotitan
Brachiosaurus

"the Archbishop"
Pelorosaurus
Pleurocoelus
Cedarosaurus
Sonorasaurus
Sauroposeidon
Breviparopus
Europasaurus



The footprints at the bottom are those of Pleurocoelus and Breviparopus.

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Note: The "Brachiosaurus" shown here was B. brancai, which is now formally known as Giraffatitan (though the alternate name has been used since 1988, first and foremost by Gregory Paul). However, the type species B. altithorax was of similar average size.

The entire sequence is roughly in order from the earliest brachiosaurs to the last, with the exception of the basal dwarf brachiosaur Europasaurus.
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:iconleopold002:
Leopold002 Featured By Owner Jan 14, 2015  Hobbyist Writer
Interesting presentation. Information well organized and understandable.
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:iconkarotcake:
Karotcake Featured By Owner Dec 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I got 1 question, 
how do this giant lizards hearts pump blood all the way to their heads?
wouldnt they just pass out?
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:icononigojira:
OniGojira Featured By Owner May 2, 2015
Trees pump water just fine up to their tops. Obviously the two living things are nothing alike but if plants figured out a way with out exploding themselves from the pressure, I'm sure so could Dinosaurs.
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:iconcelestial-rainstorm:
Celestial-Rainstorm Featured By Owner May 9, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Fantastic illustration. I grew up thinking Brachiosaurus was the tallest dinosaur. But now.....wow! Just look at the size of these beasts! 

And little Europosaurus XD I'd ride her to school. 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 18, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Yes Europasaurus is pretty cute. But it's not the smallest brachiosaur anymore, apparently. The Croatian Dwarf is even smaller.

There are a number of dinosaurs that were taller than Brachiosaurus (or at least its holotype specimen, which died before reaching full size). Sauroposeidon, Puertasaurus, Daxiatitan, and a whole host of other vertical-necked high browsers. However few dinosaurs were both taller AND heavier. Perhaps only the really big titanosaurs like Puertasaurus and Alamosaurus.

Breviparopus was apparently also outclassed by "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi, a species that needs its own genus and was NOT a form of Brachiosaurus, although it probably was from the same family. This beast is known mainly from an imcomplete sacrum, but probably approached 130 feet assuming it had similar proportions to Giraffatitan.
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:iconcelestial-rainstorm:
Celestial-Rainstorm Featured By Owner May 18, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Good lord, and to think our planet was once blessed with these creatures. 
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014
Great graph. I based my graph on yours :) 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Thanks! :D
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2014
Wait, regarding your tyrannosaurus, I've heard that MOR 008 was smaller than sue and just had an unusually elongated skull. What's your view on this? 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Since I don't know of any postcranial remains for MOR 008 (far as I know it's just the skull) I can't make that kind of judgment.

The real problem is that it's a fragmentary skull, and all the big T. rex skulls are roughly similar in size. But with varying proportions. Whether MOR 008 ends up reconstructed bigger or smaller than Sue's skull depends on the prophetions you give to the missing parts. Restore it like Sue or Wankel (long upper jaw, deep cranium region, big overbite) and it's bigger than Sue. Just like Jack Horner did it (one of the few things I agree with him on). But if you try to reconstruct it like the AMNH specimen or Stan, it comes out a bit smaller than Sue.

Of course MOR 008 isn't just along skull, it's also a thick and deep one. So the whole "it's a younger animal with a more gracile skull" rumor simply isn't true. It's possibly the most mature and robust T. rex skull on record. The rugose nasal bone indicates an even older and gnarlier-looking animal than Sue.

My view is since its morphology is more like Sue than any of the other T. rexes, it is probably most correct to restore it like Sue, in which case it comes out bigger. There's a tendency to the most conservative estimates possible that is popular among many paleoartists nowadays, which I think sometimes goes too far (i.e. people restoring titanosaurs with thin rib cages like diplodocids, based on crushed and deformed rib fossils that don't fit with the wide hip shape - nobody bothered to reconstruct their uncrushed life appearance.)
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014
Of course my infinicollid graph is nowhere near as good as your work and more deta
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:iconpalaeorigamipete:
palaeorigamipete Featured By Owner Feb 19, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
How much fossil material is there of breviparopus? The size seems borderline insane! XD
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Feb 19, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
There are only footprints. But these, at nearly 1m wide, are still much smaller than the bigger sauropod prints that have been found. The tracks at Plagne, Frange, and those of Parabrontopodus distercii are pushing 2m wide.

Breviparopus is not alone even among brachiosaurs. "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi is known from a partial sacrum that when complete, was probably up to 60% longer than that of the Brachiosaurus altithorax holotype. So we're talking about a creature that may have topped 120ft. long. The largest Giraffatitan specimens, HMN XV2 and HMN Fund no, appear to be from individuals in the 90-100 foot range. And apparently based on the scaled quarry maps of Abydosaurus, its adult individuals approached 100 feet long as well. paleo-king.deviantart.com/art/…
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:iconpalaeorigamipete:
palaeorigamipete Featured By Owner Feb 20, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Wow... O.O
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:iconraptor92921:
raptor92921 Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2013
You should add our regular Brachiosaurus as well.
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:icontwoworldsonekingdom:
twoworldsonekingdom Featured By Owner Oct 26, 2013
Does the Archbishob have an official name now?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Oct 29, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
Not yet. Still going to be a while it seems...
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:iconebonfeather:
Ebonfeather Featured By Owner Sep 29, 2013
Nice work, thank you for sharring this.
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:iconcheetaur:
Cheetaur Featured By Owner Sep 19, 2013
Wow you are an awesome dinosaur artist, thanks for sharing this prehistoric masterpiece. ;)
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:iconsniper0092:
Sniper0092 Featured By Owner Jul 25, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
I think they may all be the same species, just different ages. But this is pretty awesome, I'd like to be around that many dinos.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jul 31, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
These are not all the same species, there is no way. Everything here is a valid species. They are mostly from different times and continents, and the features on the bones are different enough to separate them all out. Also the proportions are quite different across the family. Nobody will confuse even closely related species like Volkheimeria and Lapparentosaurus despite them sharing some general features, the laminae and fossae on their bones are different.

And more advanced brachiosaurs like Giraffatitan are clearly different from the basal forms, even their juveniles look nothing like primitive brachiosaur species.
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:iconsniper0092:
Sniper0092 Featured By Owner Jul 31, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Interesting....I shall put this info in my story.:)
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jun 18, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Here is my question...Did you draw these guys separately then composite them? If so, could you somehow post Mr. Breviparopus by itself, something about that life restoration in particular seems very graceful... :D
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
No I drew them all on one page. I plan to eventually restore "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi which is similar in size and might also do a separate Breviparopus.
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jun 22, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
I would think Brachiosaurus n. would have to be a tad larger than old Breviparopus. Considering the complete sacrum being ~160cm long, and Brachiosaurus's sacrum being only 95cm. That's about 170% larger linearly, not including allometric neck elongation. Breviparopus on the other hand seems to have manus prints only about 25-40% wider than those of Giraffatitan.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
Good point, but the pes prints are a better gauge of overall size. Especially since they are larger and less prone to shrinkage due to collapse.
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Gag, I meant to type pes... so the point stands.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jul 4, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
Haha I've made that mistake too... actually even PhD paleontologists make mistakes like that so you're in good company.

On SV-POW there was some confusion as to the size of Breviparopus, Matt Wedel said the Pes prints were only 50cm wide (no bigger than the pes of Diplodocus) and I knew this didn't sound right. I checked the sources, it turned out that the description paper (Dutuit and Ouazzou) actually said the manus prints were 50cm wide (and they looked a bit caved-in anyway) whereas the pes prints were 90cm wide, much larger! Another paper (Ishigaki 1989) had a better sketch of the prints which corroborated that the pes was indeed at least 90cm wide (the pes prints also look a bit caved-in). I pointed this out, we were both a bit shocked since wikipedia and other sources had all repeated the myth that the PES was only 50cm wide, whereas it should have said MANUS was 50cm wide (and that didn't even include the thumb claw print). We all had a good laugh afterwards. Seems you can't trust anything that gets repeated on the internet these days... :XD:

So essentially Breviparopus was a very big animal (not as big as many others, but still a pretty colossal sauropod), but just had narrow hands. And if you look at some late-stage brachiosaurs like Sonorasaurus you do notice they have very elongated and slim metacarpals, so pretty narrow hands.

BTW I just found out that Sonorasaurus and Cedarosaurus were actually the same size, so that would render part of this picture outdated. (Or at least neither was all that much smaller than the other). I'm reconstructing skeletals for both, should be up soon.
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jul 4, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Haha, can't wait for the new skeletals! :O
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:icontheropod1:
theropod1 Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013
So B. nougaredi is arguably the largest brachiosaur and among the largest sauropods. If it is 70% bigger than the berlin Giraffatitan, that would conservatively make it 37m long and 112t in weight. Seems to approach even Amphicoelias at a more conservative figure. The lenght does not account for neck elongation, and the weight bases on the most conservative figure for Giraffatitan (that I personally think ir rather an underestimate).

This creature is really damn huge. I used to think Breviparopus was among the largest dinosaurs, but it appears not, it's merely the size a large brachiosaurus would have been. But this giant sacrum is disregarded far too often when trying to determine the biggest dinosaur. After all, it is the second-biggest dinosaur known from actual body fossils...

One note: MOR 008 was wrongly reconstructed, making it larger. It doesn't seem to be that large. If you look at the measurements, you can see both the maxilla and dentary are much smaller than in sue. The skull shape is very odd and largely due so to the way it was restored, with a massive overbite and a dog-like step on its frontal area among other things.
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:icontheropod1:
theropod1 Featured By Owner Jul 29, 2013
oh, and since that was actually about Brachiosaurus althithorax, it is even bigger than that lol
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Yep, and yep. The height is the real kicker, if if had a neck of Sauroposeidonish proportions it cracked 90 feet tall... :0
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:icontheropod1:
theropod1 Featured By Owner Jun 28, 2013
Amazing sauropod. And so often disregarded, albeit gigantic. Right up in gigapod territory, considering a conservative estimate would be above 110t...

I whish a bit more was known about it, but compared to some other enigmatic sauropods (known from footprints or drawings or parts of vertebrae...) it is pretty complete when it preserves four sacrals lol
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:iconfragillimus335:
Fragillimus335 Featured By Owner Jun 28, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Yep, haha.
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:iconbrolyeuphyfusion9500:
"B. rex" is MOR 1125, not MOR 008, and is far from being the largest specimen.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 27, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
Oops, then I meant MOR 008. You can blame Horner and Schweitzer for that mixup. People will say anything on TV these days.
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:iconbrolyeuphyfusion9500:
Horner again...that guy keeps coming up with bad theories that don't make sense!
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:iconthesilverbells:
TheSilverBells Featured By Owner Apr 24, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
lol What about BRONTOSAURUS??? We were still being taught that one when I was little. xD lol

Great artwork! <3
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 27, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
"Brontosaurus" was not even a brachiosaur so it doesn't belong here anyway. And it wasn't as big as most of the larger brachiosaurs (even the big Oklahoma specimens were probably outclassed by "B" nougaredi, Breviparopus, and the Algerian trackmaker).

"Brontosaurus" is a diplodocid (currently included in Apatosaurus). So it had a shorter neck, a longer tail with a whip end, and short arms. Brontosaurus/Apatosaurus was a horizontal fern-grazer with a square mouth and a flat head, not a crested vertical tree-muncher like the brachiosaurs.
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:iconbrolyeuphyfusion9500:
"Brontosaurus" is actually Apatosaurus exclesus, an apatosaurine diplodocoid.
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:iconsickboyardee:
sickboyardee Featured By Owner Apr 11, 2013
And here I've thought since I was a child that Brachiosaurus was the apex. How silly. =]
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
The apex may actually be "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi, which is not shown here. It's not a true species of Brachiosaurus, but a distant relative from Early Cretaceous Morocco. The hips are big enough to rival Argentinosaurus, and they're not even complete.
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:iconsickboyardee:
sickboyardee Featured By Owner Apr 21, 2013
=]
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:iconsanderkools:
SanderKools Featured By Owner Mar 14, 2013
Hi Paleo-King,
Do you have a picture of only Lapparentosaurus? and on which information did you base it?
Greetings,
Sander
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Mar 18, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
It is very speculative, to my knowledge there's not much known of it except a hand and arm. I basically imagined what a generic primitive brachiosaur looked like, still having some cetiosaur-like traits. This may or may not be accurate. Eventually I plan to do a skeletal of this animal and other basal brachiosaurs to see what they really looked like... problem is, very few photos of Lapparentosaurus material exist.
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:iconsanderkools:
SanderKools Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2013
you probably already know this paper:
[link]
It has indeed the arm and leg you refer to (the ones in the Musee Naturelle in Paris) but also some vertebrae.
in my opinion it also looks a bit like Camarasaurus, don't know if it is true tough, I'm not an expert.
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:iconsanderkools:
SanderKools Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2013
I also have this one paper:
A REVISION OF THE SAUROPOD DINOSAUR GENUS
‘BOTHRIOSPONDYLUS’ WITH A REDESCRIPTION OF
THE TYPE MATERIAL OF THE MIDDLE JURASSIC
FORM ‘B. MADAGASCARIENSIS’
by PHILIP D. MANNION
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:iconkaijuking54:
Kaijuking54 Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2013
*puts a saddle on europasaurus* ride like the wind bullseye!
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 27, 2013  Professional Traditional Artist
Hah, not a bad idea! I will be posting a Europasaurus skeletal soon so you will get to see how small it really is close up. It's about the body size of a large horse but with its neck and tail the length is around 20 feet.
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:iconkaijuking54:
Kaijuking54 Featured By Owner May 29, 2013
only a little bigger than an elephant, tiny for a brachiosaur
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